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我们身处在一个悲哀的国家, 我们同胞的血脉中流动着短视的劣根性, 我所从事的行业正处于黑暗的时代, 我没有热血,但一息尚存。

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The Subculture of MMORPG  

2005-11-20 02:52:38|  分类: 游戏文化 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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     The Subculture of MMORPG


Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Brief History
    1. MUDs
    2. MMORPGs
  3. Communication
  4. Community
    1. Solo and Anti-Social
    2. Relationships
    3. Groups
    4. Guilds
    5. External Online Communities
  5. Conflicts
    1. Roleplaying versus Power-gaming
    2. Does Roleplaying Promote Discrimination?
    3. Player Killers and Griefers
    4. Mirroring Gender Discrimination
    5. Account Auctions
  6. Crafting and Trades: The Player Economy
  7. The Sims Online
    1. Relationship Web
    2. The Popularity Game
    3. Materialism
  8. Associated Studies
    1. Bartle's 4-Axis Personalities
      1. Socializers
      2. Killers
      3. Explorers
      4. Achievers
    2. Nick Yee's Five Motivations
      1. Relationship
      2. Immersion
      3. Grief
      4. Achievement
      5. Leadership
  9. Developers: The Other Players
    1. Developing Dependencies
    2. Developers Summit: The Pursuit of the Golden Egg
  10. Glossary
  11. Bibliography

MMORPG is an acronym for Massively-Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game. There are other games played over the Internet, but there are specific features that designates an MMORPG:

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Multi-User Dungeon, was developed by Roy Trubshaw in 1978 and further modified by Richard Bartle throughout the 80's. The purpose of its design was to make a text-based adventure game that multiple players could play simultaneously. Compared to today's MMORPGs, MUDs are extremely primitive. However, this design was the first multiplayer computer game.

ortance<virtual world. These "worlds" were typically a series of "rooms" that players could travel through. Each room would be described literally, including interactive contents, such as furniture, objects, and mobiles (computer-controlled characters that typically have the ability to move about).

<>

Ultima Online (UO) was the first. Others would argue that Meridian 59 (M59) was the first. Of the two, UO became the most successful. Originally, the idea behind this term over MUD was that MMORPGs were graphical (as opposed to text-based). However, there were many graphical MUDs around prior to M59 and UO.

e a at worlds the same in of that MMORPG time are players rel="nofollow" this <Shadowbane (SB) world can support well over 3000 players simultaneously.

e the worlds of now players several rel="nofollow" this these <player cap (maximum number of players allowed) per world. A few, such as The Sims Online and Shadowbane have several unique worlds by design. Regardless if the worlds are unique or not by design, the player communities formed in each world will make each world unique.

EverQuest (EQ) was the first true 3-dimensional MMORPG. The developers of EQ were so adamant about creating the most immersive and detailed world imaginable, they actually succeeded. Most MMORPG players feel that EQ was a huge leap in design and that it has not been surpassed by any other since. Still, development of games following EQ have attempted to improve upon it.


Internet Relay Chat (IRC). This allows multiple channels for interaction on different levels, such as local (speaking to those around you "geographically"), shout, auction, OOC (out-of-character), group, guild, tell (private and direct messages between two players) and many others.

third-party utilities for voice-streaming to interact using voice, rather than typing. The problem with this is that voice communication conflicts with roleplaying immersion (the assumption of a character role and involvement in the virtual world), especially when another player is playing a different gender than his or her character.

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< Solo>

player characters (PC), but are simply either unable to afford the time for interacting or are just less social. Very few solo-oriented players are actually anti-social. However, solo players are often accused of anti-social behavior (see 5.3 PKs and Griefers).

<>

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pseudonym. Many players will find that they desire to keep in touch with other players outside of the game, usually by email, so that they can meet up again in the game. Participants of player guilds normally interact outside of the game to better organize and exchange game-related information (such as scheduled events) that would be difficult to handle inside the limitations of the game.

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parties) will form temporarily. The maximum number of members of these groups varies between games, usually between 6-10 members. The main purpose of these groups is to allow participants to share experience points (XP) acquired through combat. However, a side effect of this participation is that the members will get to know eachother better.

< success major may behawbr>vior full isolating groups Online Ultima game very EQ made groups join forced own enough gain emphasis considerable placed<

session to find or form groups. There are also players who, isolated by time zone, log in at off-peak hours and cannot find other players to form groups with.

< group based balance developers days goal>

<>

guilds or clans, manifested out of the desire for players to have a more permanent structure to their social interactions. In most MMORPGs, developers have designed a game system for supporting these organizations.

< faster hunting Players mechanics using friends contact stay allow Guilds from work define help guild joining So carry property own characters MMORPGs home establish guilds>

guildmasters and its members. Dark Age of Camelot was the first MMORPG to all guildmasters to establish their own rank ladders using a system designed into the game itself. Guildmasters could then assign priveleges to certain ranks, such as inviting new members, promoting members to new ranks, and the ability to communicate on certain chat channels (guild, officer, and alliance). This gave a new level of involvement for guilds.

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human lemmingness, where people will follow the masses, whether they agree with the masses or not.

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guild charter or mission statement that clearly defines the guild's goals and rules. These pages might also include information about relationships with other guilds, tips, and other helpful information for their members.

< advantaged competitively typically working communities amount Many addiction obsession sign game-related outside spending whether bit quite been>


< since debates topic heated cover section response functional argument conflict plague continually interaction symbolic obvious>

< versus Roleplaying>

power-gamers.

< roleplayers split there realized Soon staff begged minority thought power-gamers first>

in-character (assuming the role of your character).

< best difficult proves in-character staying etc messages error interface obstacles technical non-immersive view point characters first-person meant in-character By speech Shakespearian without speak least non-roleplayers asked quickly rising ratio>

< Promote Does>

Star Wars Galaxies, these races are sci-fi themed and usually are predominate races of planets from different star systems. In a few MMORPGs, such as Ultima Online, Asheron's Call (AC), and The Sims Online (TSO), player characters are all human, but players can choose different skin tones that have no impact on the game and are just for creating unique player identities.

Shadowbane, these racial-conflicts are key to how players are supposed to roleplay their interactions with eachother. For instance, elves are prescribed to hate their red-skinned "bastard cousins" from the desert. The idea behind this is to create rifts between races and a motivation for political conflict.

< realized racial banned permanently policy harrassment violate Those polices roleplaying intensity>

< sociology focus against used translated sometimes slurs Real-life times boundaries across stepped intent Regardless hatred outlet healthy functionally Or real-life inspire hatred>

< Killers Player>

PKs (Player Killers) or griefers. Player killers are defined as players that use their characters to kill other player characters. This term is usually used in a negative sense, because of the long and bloody conflicts that had occured during the first few years of Ultima Online. The problem with UO was that the developers had not envisioned PKs becoming the problem that they turned out to be. At one point, the laissez faire game mechanics had resulted in the game being nearly unplayable due to the vast number of PKs that were preying upon the innocents.

< between player into prefer or systems allow designed versus minority PvP-inclined harm PvP population Statistically conflict consensual player-killing designate coined term Player Player>

Griefers are players that use non-violent means to pester and annoy other players. One griefer tactic is kill-stealing, where a griefer will wait until a victim has almost finished killing a monster before finishing it off themselves. Another issue is ninja looting, where the griefer will lurk near a victim in combat with a monster, then quickly steal the monster loot when it dies, before the victim has a chance to loot it themselves.

Game Masters (aka "GMs"), who are employeed by the game company to provide support for the game (in the game), step in to resolve issues that the game mechanics cannot handle. Players can face suspension and even banning for continued anti-social behavior.

< Gender Mirroring>

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< various treated differently reveals roles obvious glance At mobiles mobs NPC combat acquire goals achieve cooperatively interactions complex IRC>

need assistance, when they don't.

< provided provide expected effectively newbies ridiculed game authority>

< highly leaders effective aspire prejudices override qualities players initial>

< appearance changed EverQuest pack expansion later Regardless Frazetta Frank Vallejo Boris artists females impressions artistic decades bikinis times scanty clothes elven EverQuest especially objects sexual portraying chastised recently>

< Account>

e Players This was who of almost Ultima were teenager when on year had thousands with such news UO a as the became in quite rel="nofollow" within big their first<< Japanese dollars hundreds sold castle account stir created eBay sites auction bidders highest accounts selling started development character hours countless invested playing tired release Onwbr>lines following<

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< feel developers own more violate account created counter outcry motivated financially arguably transfers handling this To practice forbidden theyve EULAs>


< Trades >

Ultima Online and Horizons, crafting and trade are major hubs of social interaction in the game. Crafting objects to trade with other characters allows players a different level of interaction than the typical adventuring (combat) role.

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< diverse appeal market crowded foothold popular onwbr>es old time coming influx preferences reflect themselves subject attitudes seem<


line rel="nofollow"<< Sims>

line rel="nofollow" I<< Sims>(TSO) is so different, that it deserves a section to itself. TSO was modeled after The Sims, which is the best selling computer game in history. However, The Sims is a single-player game. Outside of having the same appearance, the two games are completely different.

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< quite acquire game To depressing ideals Consequently interaction facilitate possessions network vast must popularity American rooted TSO>

e rel="nofollow" in <simoleans (sim money) to spend. They then can visit houses of other players, as long as the owner or their roommates are home. Usually, the first thing a player needs to do is build up one or more of their character's skills, so they can start making more money.

< Relationship>

relationship web that represents a character, their mutual friends, and friends that are not reciprocal. This web can be navigated by clicking on the faces in the web, replacing the center character with the character that was clicked on. The circles then change to reflect the friends that this character has. In this way, a player can discover friends of friends.

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< Popularity>

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< visit home stuck visitors open keep log roommates Owners possible house wish strategy>

< remain houses means circular visitations exponentially receives visible popular increase visitations>

<>

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< hopelessly inequity massive inevitably successful working difficulty competitive obtain it lot>

Monopoly, except that advancement is not determined by a roll of the dice or a lucky draw from a stack of cards. Success in The Sims Online relies heavily on a player's social skills and group dynamics, as well as high level of creative interaction.


<>

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http://www.brandeis.edu/pubs/jove/HTML/v1/bartle.html

8.1.1 Socializers

Socialisers are interested in people, and what they have to say. The game is merely a backdrop, a common ground where things happen to players. Inter-player relationships are important: empathising with people, sympathising, joking, entertaining, listening; even merely observing people play can be rewarding - seeing them grow as individuals, maturing over time. Some exploration may be necessary so as to understand what everyone else is talking about, and points-scoring could be required to gain access to neat communicative spells available only to higher levels (as well as to obtain a certain status in the community). Killing, however, is something only ever to be excused if it's a futile, impulsive act of revenge, perpetrated upon someone who has caused intolerable pain to a dear friend. The only ultimately fulfilling thing is not how to rise levels or kill hapless drips; it's getting to *know* people, to undertand them, and to form beautiful, lasting relationships.

Socialisers say things like:

"Hi!"
"Yeah, well, I'm having trouble with my boyfriend."
"What happened? I missed it, I was talking."
"Really? Oh no! Gee, that's terrible! Are you sure? Awful, just
awful!"

8.1.2 Killers

Killers get their kicks from imposing themselves on others. This may be "nice", ie. busybody do-gooding, but few people practice such an approach because the rewards (a warm, cosy inner glow, apparently) aren't very substantial. Much more commonly, people attack other players with a view to killing off their personae (hence the name for this style of play). The more massive the distress caused, the greater the killer's joy at having caused it. Normal points-scoring is usually required so as to become powerful enough to begin causing havoc in earnest, and exploration of a kind is necessary to discover new and ingenious ways to kill people. Even socialising is sometimes worthwhile beyond taunting a recent victim, for example in finding out someone's playing habits, or discussing tactics with fellow killers. They're all just means to an end, though; only in the knowledge that a real person, somewhere, is very upset by what you've just done, yet can themselves do nothing about it, is there any true adrenalin-shooting, juicy fun.

Killers says things like:

"Ha!"
"Coward!"
"Die!"
"Die! Die! Die!"

(Killers are people of few words).

8.1.3 Explorers

Explorers delight in having the game expose its internal machinations to them. They try progressively esoteric actions in wild, out-of-the-way places, looking for interesting features (ie. bugs) and figuring out how things work. Scoring points may be necessary to enter some next phase of exploration, but it's tedious, and anyone with half a brain can do it. Killing is quicker, and might be a constructive exercise in its own right, but it causes too much hassle in the long run if the deceased return to seek retribution. Socialising can be informative as a source of new ideas to try out, but most of what people say is irrelevant or old hat. The real fun comes only from discovery, and making the most complete set of maps in existence.

Explorers say things like:

"Hmm..."
"You mean you *don't know* the shortest route from (obscure room 1) to (obscure room 2)?"
"I haven't tried that one, what's it do?"
"Why is it that if you carry the uranium you get radiation
sickness, and if you put it in a bag you still get it, but if
you put it in a bag and drop it then wait 20 seconds and pick it
up again, you don't?"

8.1.4 Achievers

Achievers regard points-gathering and rising in levels as their main goal, and all is ultimately subserviant to this. Exploration is necessary only to find new sources of treasure, or improved ways of wringing points from it. Socialising is a relaxing method of discovering what other players know about the business of accumulating points, that their knowledge can be applied to the task of gaining riches. Killing is only necessary to eliminate rivals or people who get in the way, or to gain vast amounts of points (if points are awarded for killing other players).

Achievers say things like:

"I'm busy."
"Sure, I'll help you. What do I get?"
"So how do YOU kill the dragon, then?"
"Only 4211 points to go!"

< Five Yees Nick>

< portion tackle try subject research document possibly process Yee dawbr>ta qualitive quanititive<

line << wave published ago couple>www.nickyee.com/facets and www.nickyee.com/ariadne). The focus of his study then was centered on players who found themselves addicted to EverQuest. Addiction cases became so common that the game was often referred to as "EverCrack." There is still debate as to whether the developers intentionally designed EverQuest to be addictive, or if it just coincidentally happened to turn out that way. Nick Yee simply focused his attention on defining the motivations that draw players into an MMORPG.

The following descriptions were copied, verbatim, from:
http://www.nickyee.com/facets/5motiva.html

8.2.1 Relationship

This factor measures the desire to develop meaningful relationships with other players in the game - usually in the form of a supportive friendship. Players who score high on this factor usually make good friends online, and tend to have meaningful conversations with their online friends, which usually involves talking about real-life personal issues. In times of need, these players can usually count on their online friends for emotional support. These players also tend to feel that they have learned things about themselves from playing the game, as well as gaining a better understanding of real-life group dynamics.

8.2.2 Immersion

This factor measures the desire to become immersed in a make-believe construct. Players who score high on this factor enjoy being immersed in a fantasy world they can wander and explore. They tend to role-play their characters, and use their characters to try out new personalities and roles. They enjoy being in the company of other role-players. They also appreciate the sense of being part of an ongoing story, and oftentimes will think up a personal history and story for their characters.

8.2.3 Grief

This factor measures the desire to objectify and use other players for one's own gains. Their means may be both outward or subtle. On the outward side, they may enjoy dominating other players by killing them on the battlefield, or by taunting and annoying them. On the more subtle side, they may enjoy manipulating other players for their own gains, such as deceiving other players through clever scams, or begging for money and items. In either case, the satisfaction comes from some form of manipulation of other players for personal gain.

8.2.4 Achievement

This factor measures the desire to become powerful within the construct of a game. Players who score high on this factor try to reach the goals as defined by the game. They try very hard to accumulate rewards. For example, they try to optimize their XP gain to reach the next level as quickly as possible. Or they may try to accumulate as much high-level gear as possible. Or they enjoy doing massive amounts of damage to mobs. The underlying theme is a desire to get bigger numbers. But the satisfaction comes from feeling powerful.

8.2.5 Leadership

This factor measures the gregariousness and assertiveness of the player. Players who score high on this factor prefer to group rather than solo. They are often assertive individuals and usually drift to leadership positions when in a group. Because a group led by an indecisive leader often gets fragmented, the assertiveness of these players probably allows them to be effective group leaders in the game.


< Other>

< fun fun whats If designing gamer themselves release prior development make claims common>

avatars (characters), such as gods of the game's story. It's also common for them to play the game as normal characters, to get a feel for the game from the player's perspective. The insight they gain from this interaction is invaluable to improving the game.

line and of that are players will rel="nofollow" also <flame them about.

< Developing>

EverQuest has become the premiere example of gaming addiction. Cases of players spending all of their waking hours playing, losing their jobs and their loved ones, became headline news. Given Nick Yee's research on the subject and how EQ fulfils all of the motivations for addiction (and then some), it's not surprising. The question though is, was it intentionally designed that way?

< playing profit then If theyll hook financial purely implementing factors identifying interest significant>

< cease while indefinately continues purchase media purchasing initially subscription monthly paying>

retention is a key focus of developers. They are continuously identifying factors of gameplay that successfully ensnare player interest for the long-term. In a sense, game developers are refining the art of addiction.

< Golden Pursuit Summit Developers>

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